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[pic] shown above is an example of the two types of Stereoisomers; Enantiomers, which are stereioisomers which are non-superimposible mirror images, much the same as one’s left and right hands are the same apart from the fact they have opposite orientation.Diastereomers, which are stereoisomers that are not Enatiomers, they occur when two or more stereoisomers of a compound have different configurations at one or more, (but not all) of the stereocenters and are not mirror images.These are just a few of the numerous example of the important role stereoisomers play in a biological system and in our everyday lives.
Eukaryotes, Bioenergetics, The Neuron, The Nervous System, The Endocrine System, The Circulatory System, Blood Composition, Lymphatic and Immune Systems, The Digestive System, The Excretory System, Gametogenesis (Meiosis), Genetics.
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Stereochemistry, IUPAC Nomenclature, Principles of Reaction Mechanisms, The Carbonyl Group, Acetals/Ketals, Substitution, Carboxylic Acids, The Tetrahedryl Intermediate, Amides, Amino Acids, Protein Structure, Elimination, Alkenes, Free Radicals, Redox Reactions, Aromatic Rings, Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Elimination vs.
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In most case both stereoisomers are positive but one may find that one is substantially more effective than the other, such is the case with the astma drug Isoproterenol.
Although both stereoisomers are effective it is found that the D-Isoproterenol is 50-80 times more effective than L-Isoproterenol and thus can be administered at greatly reduced doses.Importance of stereoisomers in a biological system Isomers are compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas.Stereoisomers are isomers that have the same sequence of bonded atoms, but they differ in their three dimensional orientation in space.The importance of stereoisomers in a biological system extends to more than just drugs.Our bodies can make and digest starch but not cellulose despite both being polymers of glucose, however they have differing stereochemistry.Another good example of the importance of stereochemistry is pharmaceutical production and the break down of drugs in the body.Most drugs are often composed of a single stereoisomer of a compound, and while one stereoisomer may have positive effects on the body the other may have negative effects. The PDFs of my revision notes are at the bottom of the page but I thought some of you might like to know how I prepared for sitting the GAMSAT in March 2017. Obviously, the first thing I looked up was the price of text books/prep courses.BIOLOGY The Eukaryotic Cell, Plasma Membrane, The Cell's Interior, DNA, The Cell Cycle, Protein Synthesis, Viruses, Prokaryotes vs.Evolution has played a large role in this fact by favouring one isomer over the other.This concept is easier to comprehend when you remember that the molecules that select an isomer to use (invariably proteins) are themselves isomers.