Mandela later recalled of the effort: Prior to the campaign, the ANC was more talk than action.
We had no paid organizers, no staff, and a membership that did little more than pay lip-service to our cause. the ANC emerged as a truly mass-based organization with an corps of experienced activists who had braved the police, the courts, and the jails... During their nonviolent resistance, many protesters were rounded up and arrested as the government moved to outlaw any opposition.
The primary organization leading the struggle against apartheid was the African National Congress (ANC).
The ANC was founded in 1913 in response to the oppression of non-white South Africans at the hands of the white ruling class.
The first reading provides an historical overview of the apartheid system, the origins of the African National Congress, and the freedom struggle against apartheid.
This reading describes Mandela's role as an anti-apartheid activist.He was also influenced by the nonviolent strategies of Mahatma Gandhi.Gandhi was himself a resident of South Africa for more than 20 years, from 1893 to 1914.In 1943, Nelson Mandela—then a law student—joined the ANC and co-founded its youth division, the ANCYL.Mandela and other young activists had begun to advocate for a mass campaign of agitation against apartheid.In addition to being an icon of resistance and perseverance, Mandela was also a symbol of peace, having presided over the transition from apartheid to multiracial democracy and having pursued a plan of national reconciliation.This exercise invites students to think about the history of apartheid in South Africa, the long struggle against it, and Nelson Mandela's legacy as a leader in that struggle.It is against the unjust laws which keep in perpetual subjection and misery vast sections of the population.It is for the creation of conditions which will restore human dignity, equality and freedom to every South African.Under apartheid, the South African population was divided into four distinct racial groups: white (including Afrikaners, who speak a Germanic language called Afrikaans), black, colored, and Indian.Strict residential, economic, and social segregation was enforced on the basis of these racial categories.