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At present, research into persuasive systems and behaviour change can be somewhat lacking in describing the systems used and thus it remains unclear exactly how and through which features and design change is achieved (Oinas-Kukkonen, 2013).In addition to having a strong theoretical basis and a measure of actual behaviour change, a BCSS involves the analysis of intent (what change a system is intended to produce) and analysis of the persuasive potential of a system (Oinas-Kukkonen, 2013).Tailoring content and persuasive strategies to some end-user traits is an acknowledged avenue in the persuasive technology field, but what identifiable traits beyond needs, interests, personality, or context can be identified and used in the pursuit of systems that are increasingly more relevant to their users?
Transformative learning also requires for the learner to identify the need for change and then engage in the learning process (Mezirow 2009), which is a primary building block of Behaviour Change Support Systems (BCSS) (Oinas-Kukkonen, 2010a).
BCSSs are, effectively, a defined category in the broader field of persuasive systems.
The results show that neither theory has been used extensively for researching behaviour change support systems; yet, a closer look at the records offers feasible approaches for addressing the intention-behaviour gap.
Both SST and TLT emerge as worth investigating as regards identifying and influencing attitude and self-perception level factors in persuasion.
The present study, then, asks: how have the theories of self-schema and/or transformative learning been used in persuasive technology research to date?
The study is conducted as follows: 1) we explore and discover how the theories of self-schema and transformative learning have been used in persuasive technology and behaviour change research so far in information systems, and 2) as a means of grounding the review findings in persuasive technology research we analyse the findings using design and evaluation tools for development of persuasive systems, the Outcome/Change (O/C) Matrix (Oinas-Kukkonen, 2010a, 2010b) and Persuasive Systems Development (PSD) model (Oinas-Kukkonen & Harjumaa, 2009).There is a substantial body of research into persuasive systems in the field of information systems (e.g., Abraham & Michie, 2008; Chatterjee & Price, 2009; Consolvo, Mc Donald, & Landay, 2009; Fogg, 2009; Kuonanoja, Langrial, Lappalainen, Lappalainen, & Oinas-Kukkonen, 2015; Lehto & Oinas-Kukkonen, 2015), and much of the groundwork for how persuasion occurs in the human-computer environment stems from a socio-psychological paradigm, such as Bandura’s (1977) social learning theory, Ajzen’s (1991) theory of planned behaviour, or the elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986).A pivotal text in computerized persuasion research and development is Fogg’s (2003) influential book, which in itself builds on the aforementioned socio-psychological paradigm.Another question, however, is the malleability of a person’s concept of self.If one strategy for persuasive systems would be to match a message to the recipient, another avenue that can be seen is to try to influence the person’s thinking as such: his or her attitude and outlook as regards the behaviour change goal.The results are expected particularly to support further research and system concepting in the field of persuasive technology and BCSSs.In this section of the article we provide an overview of relevant background to the presented literature review in terms of how the focused theories of self-schema and transformative learning map to persuasion and behaviour change.The section also discusses the focused frameworks in the field of persuasive technology.For the design and development of these systems, Oinas-Kukkonen and Harjumaa (2009) provide a Persuasive Systems Design (PSD) model that draws together theories around persuasive technology and their psychological foundations, and proposes practical design and evaluation principles for the design and development of persuasive systems and, specifically, behaviour change support systems (BCSS) (Oinas-Kukkonen, 2010a, 2010b).Tailoring persuasive systems and messages to users is an important component of systems design (Fogg, 2003; Kaptein & Eckles, 2012; Oinas-Kukkonen & Harjumaa, 2009), but without knowing enough about the context and the individual receiving the message it is difficult to tailor the messages and their delivery effectively.So far strategies for addressing specific types of system users have included targeting specific change goals or users’ cognitive styles with positive results (Kaptein & Eckles, 2012; Kaptein Markopoulos, de Ruyter, & Aarts, 2015; Wheeler, Petty, & Bizer, 2005).