Hobbes adopted a naturalistic view of the world in which everything was to be explained by evidence and reasoning.Locke defended a common sense analysis of everyday life and thought.He extended the critical thought of such minds as Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler.Tags: Proper Heading For EssayCommencement Speeches On SuccessErnest Jones Essays Applied PsychoanalysisUtexas HomeworkPoverty Essay IntroductionGeorgetown University Thesis Submission
In his book , he argued for the importance of studying the world empirically.
He laid the foundation for modern science with his emphasis on the information-gathering processes.
He also called attention to the fact that most people, if left to their own devices, develop bad habits of thought (which he called "idols") that lead them to believe what is false or misleading.
He called attention to "Idols of the tribe" (the ways our mind naturally tends to trick itself), "Idols of the market-place" (the ways we misuse words), "Idols of the theater" (our tendency to become trapped in conventional systems of thought), and "Idols of the schools" (the problems in thinking when based on blind rules and poor instruction).
His method of questioning is now known as "Socratic Questioning" and is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy.
In his mode of questioning, Socrates highlighted the need in thinking for clarity and logical consistency.
In the Renaissance (15th and 16th Centuries), a flood of scholars in Europe began to think critically about religion, art, society, human nature, law, and freedom.
They proceeded with the assumption that most of the domains of human life were in need of searching analysis and critique.
Socrates set the agenda for the tradition of critical thinking, namely, to reflectively question common beliefs and explanations, carefully distinguishing those beliefs that are reasonable and logical from those which — however appealing they may be to our native egocentrism, however much they serve our vested interests, however comfortable or comforting they may be — lack adequate evidence or rational foundation to warrant our belief.
Socrates’ practice was followed by the critical thinking of Plato (who recorded Socrates’ thought), Aristotle, and the Greek skeptics, all of whom emphasized that things are often very different from what they appear to be and that only the trained mind is prepared to see through the way things look to us on the surface (delusive appearances) to the way they really are beneath the surface (the deeper realities of life).