Histographical Essays

The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, techniques, and theoretical approaches.Scholars discuss historiography by topic—such as the historiography of the United Kingdom, that of WWII, the British Empire, early Islam, and China—and different approaches and genres, such as political history and social history.During the Middle Ages, medieval historiography included the works of chronicles in medieval Europe, Islamic histories by Muslim historians, and the Korean and Japanese historical writings based on the existing Chinese model.

, Vol.21 (2005-6) Introduction: By the beginning of the 13th century an insidious heresy swept through the Languedoc region of southern France.

These apostates, called Albigenses, or Cathars, preached an unorthodox ‘heretical’ version of the Christian faith that spread quietly and powerfully from town to town.

In this limited sense, "ancient history" begins with the early historiography of Classical Antiquity, in about the 5th century BCE.

One of the Confucian Five Classics, the Shang Shu 尚書, has conventionally been given the English title Classic of History.

Beginning in the nineteenth century, with the development of academic history, there developed a body of historiographic literature.

The extent to which historians are influenced by their own groups and loyalties—such as to their nation state—remains a debated question.In the early modern period, the term historiography meant "the writing of history", and historiographer meant "historian".In that sense certain official historians were given the title "Historiographer Royal" in Sweden (from 1618), England (from 1660), and Scotland (from 1681). Historiography was more recently defined as "the study of the way history has been and is written – the history of historical writing", which means that, "When you study 'historiography' you do not study the events of the past directly, but the changing interpretations of those events in the works of individual historians." Understanding the past appears to be a universal human need, and the "telling of history" has emerged independently in civilizations around the world.What constitutes history is a philosophical question (see philosophy of history).The earliest chronologies date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, in the form of chronicles and annals.In the ancient world, chronological annals were produced in civilizations such as ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.However, the discipline of historiography was first established in the 5th century BC with the Histories of Herodotus, the founder of Greek historiography.Four points of contention arose from this survey: the nature of the Cathar heresy, the reason that local Latin Christians had no part in the persecution of the Cathars, the origin of the call for the Crusade, and finally the explanation for the strange events at Montségur.Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.The research interests of historians change over time, and there has been a shift away from traditional diplomatic, economic, and political history toward newer approaches, especially social and cultural studies.From 1975 to 1995 the proportion of professors of history in American universities identifying with social history increased from 31 to 41 percent, while the proportion of political historians decreased from 40 to 30 percent.

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