For example, they would not capture spillover effects across districts or other dynamics, like demand-driven industrialisation, that might operate at the country level. To isolate the causal effect of the Green Revolution, I construct a measure of the predicted change in agricultural productivity for each unit of analysis.
Coinciding with the escalation of the Green Revolution in agriculture were the development and increasing electoral success of political parties explicitly aligned with agrarian interests.
Earlier work has posited a direct link between growth in agricultural wealth and the political power of rural parties (see Varshney 1995, Dasgupta 2014, for a recent empirical analysis). Rural opposition parties called for agricultural price regulation and greater government investment in the rural sector, and were highly critical of the Indian National Congress, which they accused of having an urban bias (Brass 1980: 413-414).
The basic ingredients of the new strategy are: (i) High Yielding Variety seeds (vi) Better cultural practices.
The programme has been considerably modified with the passage of time and now the dry areas and the hilly areas have now been covered under the new agricultural strategy.
This is likely in part because changes in agricultural productivity could be influenced by a range of factors, including government investment, education, the quality of credit markets and property rights, or income.
Academic and policy debates on the impact of the Green Revolution remain far from conclusive (e.g. 2003, and Pingali 2012 on the benefits; Ladejinsky 1970, Griffin 1974, Harriss 1977, and Shiva 1991 on the downsides).
During mid-sixties this HYV technology was adopted in the Indian agriculture to boost up production of food grains.
This new agricultural development strategy was first sponsored by the Ford Foundation and it was selectively implemented in 16 agriculturally developed districts.
Country-level analysis also makes it possible to test the effect of agricultural productivity growth on income.
– if anything, the Green Revolution had a negative effect on per capita income for countries that were lowest in the 1960 income distribution.