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The figures are also available from The Royal Dutch Medical Association (KNMG) website (see KNMG).Reports for 20 are available (see Regional Euthanasia Review Committees. The figures in Table 2 are calculated from the Dutch data.
In Holland and Belgium, euthanasia is defined as being at the patient’s request, so cases of ‘ending of life without the patient’s explicit request’ have to be counted separately.
It is ethically and morally no different to euthanasia.
These include ‘death with dignity’, ‘medical assistance in dying’, and ‘the peaceful alternative’.
But these terms do not alter the nature of the act and, where possible, are avoided.
Intensified treatment of pain and symptoms may be entirely clinically appropriate, the possibility of life-shortening being acknowledged, but not intended.
In contrast, intensified treatment of pain and symptoms performed with the intention of hastening death or ending life, is no different to euthanasia—these are deaths caused by the active intervention of the physician.In chronological order, these are The Netherlands, the Northern Territory of Australia, Oregon (USA), Belgium, and Canada.Legal change was not required to allow assisted suicide in Switzerland.If it is performed at the dying person's request, it is voluntary; otherwise, it is non-voluntary.The terms ‘active’ and ‘passive’ may be misleading (Walton, 1995).End of Life Clinic In 2012, the Dutch Association for Voluntary Euthanasia (NVVE) founded the End-of-Life Clinic or Levenseindekliniek (see Levenseindekliniek).The Dutch have reported their practices each 5 years since 1990 (Table 1) (van der Maas et al, 1991; van der Maas et al, 1996; Onwuteaka-Philipsen et al, 2003; van der Heide et al, 2007; Onwuteaka-Philipsen et al, 2012b; van der Heide et al, 2017).IAHPC prohibits the commercial use or reproduction and distribution of this material without authorization.Published by IAHPC Press 5535 Memorial Drive, Suite F- 509, Houston TX, 77007, USA Euthanasia is ‘a deliberate intervention undertaken with the express intention of ending a life so as to relieve intractable suffering’ (House of Lords, 1994; Walton, 1995).Continuous sedation until death (CSD) for the management of severe and refractory symptoms in the last days or week of life may be entirely clinically appropriate therapy, the possibility of life-shortening being acknowledged, but not intended.In contrast, CSD performed with the intention of hastening death or ending life is no different to euthanasia—these are deaths caused by the active intervention of the physician.