Essay On Scientific Progress In After Independence

Essay On Scientific Progress In After Independence-2
This knowledge is based on explanatory principles whose verifiable consequences can be tested by independent observers. Scientists operate within a system designed for continuous testing, where corrections and new findings are announced in refereed scientific publications.

This knowledge is based on explanatory principles whose verifiable consequences can be tested by independent observers. Scientists operate within a system designed for continuous testing, where corrections and new findings are announced in refereed scientific publications.

In evaluating practices that guide research endeavors, it is important to consider the individual character of scientific fields.

Research fields that yield highly replicable results, such as ordinary organic chemical structures, are quite different from fields such as cellular immunology, which are in a much earlier stage of development and accumulate much erroneous or uninterpretable material before the pieces fit together coherently.

A hypothesis is a proposed explanation of those facts.

A theory is a hypothesis that has gained wide acceptance because it has survived rigorous investigation of its predictions. science accommodates, indeed welcomes, new discoveries: its theories change and its activities broaden as new facts come to light or new potentials are recognized.

Historian Jan Sapp has described the complex interplay between theory and observation that characterizes the operation of scientific judgment in the selection of research data during revolutionary periods of paradigmatic shift (Sapp, 1990, p.

113): What “liberties” scientists are allowed in selecting positive data and omitting conflicting or “messy” data from their reports is not defined by any timeless method. It is learned, acquired socially; scientists make judgments about what fellow scientists might expect in order to be convincing.

It's a kind of scientific integrity, a principle of scientific thought that corresponds to a kind of utter honesty—a kind of leaning over backwards.

For example, if you're doing an experiment, you should report everything that you think might make it invalid—not only what you think is right about it; other causes that could possibly explain your results; and things you thought of that you've eliminated by some other experiment, and how they worked—to make sure the other fellow can tell they have been eliminated.

Although its goal is to approach true explanations as closely as possible, its investigators claim no final or permanent explanatory truths. Different hypotheses are sometimes advanced to explain the same factual evidence.

Rigor in the testing of hypotheses is the heart of science, if no verifiable tests can be formulated, the idea is called an hypothesis—one that is not fruitful; such hypotheses fail to stimulate research and are unlikely to advance scientific knowledge.

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