Citation In Research Papers-

Citation In Research Papers--2
Different citation systems and styles are used in scientific citation, legal citation, prior art, the arts, and the humanities.

Different citation systems and styles are used in scientific citation, legal citation, prior art, the arts, and the humanities.Citation content can vary depending on the type of source and may include: The numbers refer to either footnotes (notes at the end of the page) or endnotes (notes on a page at the end of the paper) that provide source detail.Others, such as MLA and APA styles, specify formats within the context of a single citation system.

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Citation styles can be broadly divided into styles common to the Humanities and the Sciences, though there is considerable overlap.

Some style guides, such as the Chicago Manual of Style, are quite flexible and cover both parenthetical and note citation systems.

More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears.

Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not).

In these areas, the term "footnote" is actually used as a synonym for "reference", and care must be taken by editors and typesetters to ensure that they understand how the term is being used by their authors.

Dimitrova have found that citations to online sources have a rate of decay (as cited pages are taken down), which they call a "half-life", that renders footnotes in those journals less useful for scholarship over time.Other styles include a list of the citations, with complete bibliographical references, in an end section, sorted alphabetically by author.This section is often called "References", "Bibliography", "Works cited" or "Works consulted".Field-dependent factors are usually listed as an issue to be tackled not only when comparison across disciplines are made, but also when different fields of research of one discipline are being compared.For example, in medicine, among other factors, the number of authors, the number of references, the article length, and the presence of a colon in the title influence the impact; while in sociology the number of references, the article length, and title length are among the factors.As Roark and Emerson have argued, citations relate to the way authors perceive the substance of their work, their position in the academic system, and the moral equivalency of their place, substance, and words.Despite these attributes, many drawbacks and shortcoming of citation practices have been reported, including for example honorary citations, circumstantial citations, discriminatory citations, selective and arbitrary citations.Harvard, MLA, American Sociological Association (ASA), American Psychological Association (APA), and other citations systems, because their syntactic conventions are widely known and easily interpreted by readers.Each of these citation systems has its advantages and disadvantages. Bibliographies, and other list-like compilations of references, are generally not considered citations because they do not fulfill the true spirit of the term: deliberate acknowledgement by other authors of the priority of one's ideas.In this way, what looks like a citation is actually supplementary material, or suggestions for further reading.Depending on the choice of style, fully cited parenthetical references may require no end section.

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