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It can be reformed to syngas that contains both carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas using the reaction below.(Leung et al., 2014) CHfrom the syngas can be used as clean energy or in other applications. Shows the pre-combustion process in detail where the coal and the natural gas are turned to syngas through gasification and the hydrogen gas is then used in power plants as a form of renewable energy.(Aaron et al., 2005) Lastly, depleted oil and gas reservoirs are the most common geological formations for carbon storage.
(Singh et al., 2013) There are many limitations for many of the technologies specifically lack of funding and monetary incentive to reduce carbon dioxide emissions as well as the maturity of the research.
C in 2013 (Farrelly et al., 2013)(Leung et al., 2014) This is detrimental to the environment as it leads to the melting of ice caps, increased sea level rise and extreme weather conditions.
(Farrelly et al., 2013) Recently, global leaders committed to keep the overall temperature rise of the planet to under 2C at the COP21 in Paris promising to mitigate climate change by moving toward a carbon free future.
It is clear that in order to tackle the challenge many approaches have to be implemented together such as “energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, energy conservation as well as carbon capture and sequestration.” (Litynski et al., 2006) Carbon sequestration strategies can be a clear path in mitigating climate change as well as neutralizing the excess CO that have been studied and are currently being used in various pilot projects further increasing the incentive to study this field.
(Leung et al., 2014) It was found that the most mature and viable technologies for carbon capture was post combustion because it can be retrofitted in older power plants.
(Leung et al., 2014) Adsorption was found the best technology to separate the carbon because it is mature, simple and relatively low cost.Carbon is exchanged and recycled among natural reservoirs and processes, which occur at various rates ranging from short-term to long-term.(NOAA) Short-term processes are daily and seasonal cycles where carbon is released into the atmosphere by respiration from plants and animals as well as decomposition of biomass.This technique can be applied to the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power plants that use coal as fuel.Furthermore, natural gas can also be treated through a pre-combustion process as it mainly contains methane.This paper means to give a holistic overview of carbon sequestration as a method to mitigate climate change by focusing specifically on emerging carbon capture and storage technologies and biological mitigation including afforestation, ocean sequestration and microalgae use.The most recent studies on the geochemical cycle of carbon show that atmospheric CO years is regulated by the carbon cycle which includes “silicate weathering, carbonate precipitation, carbonate metamorphism, mantle CO2 degassing, oxidative weathering and burial of organic carbon.” (Farrelly et al., 2013) In order to understand new and emerging methods in carbon sequestration it is crucial to view the natural regulation of carbon on the planet.Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies have been widely studied as a viable method to reduce carbon emissions.This paper portrays a holistic overview of the physical methods as well as the biological methods of carbon sequestration in order to transition towards a net carbon neutral economy.(Farrelly et al., 2013) Volcanoes release a very small amount of carbon (0.13 Gt C/year), which is extremely small compared to the amount of carbon anthropogenic sources have released in the past 40 years estimated to be around 9 Gt C/yr.(Farrelly et al., 2013) Due to these major issues and global leaders struggling to manage and mitigate climate change, it is crucial to study mitigation methods both physical and biological that can store and sequester carbon indefinitely or in the short-term.